When cool, the artifact is ready to assume its intended position within the material assemblage of the culture.Ceramics can be classified along at least two dimensions: the nature of the paste or fabric-ware from which the object is fashioned and the type and style of surface treatment.
These measures can refine TPQs by removing ceramic outliers that may have been introduced through excavation error or disturbance.The level of heterogeneity reflects the social and economic differentiation of the time period.The discussion will be limited to three artifact categories: ceramics, glass, and structural materials.Materials from these categories are both the most frequently encountered and the most useful for assigning dates. Ceramics are objects that are made from baked clay.In its simplest trajectory (Shepard 1956), the production of a ceramic vessel involves mixing powdered clay, a tempering medium, and water to create a paste. After shaping, drying, and the application of surface treatments, the object is fired at a temperature producing a particular level of vitrification.The purpose of this guide is to provide a general introduction to some of the historic artifacts recovered from archaeological sites in the Upper Sangamon Basin of east-central Illinois.
Most of the field work has focused on the Mahomet area, but these sites are considered typical of material from the larger study area.
The midpoints are weighted by the frequency of sherds of different types.
The mean ceramic date for the South Grove Midden is 1746. Historical archaeologists also rely on pipe stems to estimate when a site was occupied.
The vitrification process involves the temperature and conditions under which the particles of clay fuse.
The high temperature has the effect of changing the physical properties of the clay so that it, for instance, will not dissolve to mud when exposed to water.
The identification of animal and plant foodstuffs processed in pots provides insights into herding and farming, and can also detect trade in exotic organic goods.