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It has been the matter of debate among the scholars that whether the constitution of India is completely federal or unitary in nature.
The Supreme Court of India has the original jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Union and the States.The federation is a union because it is indestructible and helps to maintain the unity of the country.Art 155 and 156 provide that the Governor, who is the constitutional head of a State, is to be appointed by the President and stays only until the pleasure of the President The Centre may take over the administration of the State on the recommendations of the Governor or otherwise.Such an amendment has to be passed by majority of total members of each house of the Parliament as well as by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting there in.However, in addition to this process, some amendments must be approved by at least 50% of the states.The supremacy of the constitution means that both, the Union and the State Governments, shall operate within the limits set by the Constitution.
And both the union government and the central government derive their powers from the constitution.: The constitution of India is a rigid constitution and this is one of the basic features of federal constitution.
In a federal set up there is a two tier of Government with well assigned powers and functions.
In this system the central government and the governments of the units act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. Wheare defines federal government as an association of states, which has been formed for certain common purposes, but in which the member states retain a large measure of their original independence.
The federal polity, in other words, provides a constitutional device for bringing unity in diversity and for the achievement of common national goals. A federal government exists when the powers of the government for a community are divided substantially according to a principle that there is a single independent authority for the whole area in respect of some matters and there are independent regional authorities for other matters, each set of authorities being co-ordinate to and subordinate to the others within its own sphere.
The Constitution of India has adopted federal features; though it does not, in fact, claim that it establishes a federation.
The question whether the Indian Constitution could be called a federal constitution troubled the minds of the members of the Constituent Assembly.