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By 1976 Soviet engineers developed a relatively simple and inexpensive system of satellite television (especially for Central and Northern Siberia).
Later, Ekran satellites were replaced by more advanced Ekran-M series satellites.Each station had a 12-meter receiving parabolic antenna and transmitters for re-broadcasting TV signals to local householders.However, a large part of the Soviet central regions were still not covered by transponders of Molniya satellites.The system included a few geostationary Gorizont and Express type communication satellites.TV signals from Moscow Global’s satellites could be received in any country on the planet except Canada and the Northwest USA.In 1991, the Soviet era Gosteleradio state system included four national television channels, 52 stations in the former Soviet republics and 78 regional stations in the Russian Federation.
Today there are about 15,000 transmitters in the country.
Each republic, area or region had its own television station.
In the 1970s and 1980s, television become the preeminent mass medium.
They were equipped with powerful onboard transponders, so the size of the receiving station's parabolic antennas were reduced to 4 and 2.5 meters (in comparison to the early 12- meter dishes of the standard orbital downlink stations).
By 1989 an improved version of the Moskva system, called Moskva Global'naya, (or Moscow Global) was introduced.
The fundamental piece of media-specific federal legislation is the Law on Mass Media, which was passed on December 27, 1991 and took effect on February 13, 1992.