Direct dating edinburgh
Roger Schank (Stanford) defined conceptual dependency model for natural language understanding.Later developed (in Ph D dissertations at Yale University) for use in story understanding by Robert Wilensky and Wendy Lehnert, and for use in understanding memory by Janet Kolodner.
First successful knowledge-based program for scientific reasoning.Subsequent work by Grosz, Bonnie Webber and Candace Sidner developed the notion of "centering", used in establishing focus of discourse and anaphoric references in Natural language processing.Bill Van Melle's Ph D dissertation at Stanford demonstrated the generality of MYCIN's representation of knowledge and style of reasoning in his EMYCIN program, the model for many commercial expert system "shells".Teddington Conference on the Mechanization of Thought Processes was held in the UK and among the papers presented were John Mc Carthy's Programs with Common Sense, Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium, and Marvin Minsky's Some Methods of Heuristic Programming and Artificial Intelligence.denied the possibility of machine intelligence on logical or philosophical grounds.This will be the first of five unsuccessful attempts at designing a direct entry calculating clock in the 17th century (including the designs of Tito Burattini, Samuel Morland and René Grillet)).
Gottfried Leibniz improved the earlier machines, making the Stepped Reckoner to do multiplication and division.
This book is considered by some to mark the beginning of the AI winter of the 1970s, a failure of confidence and funding for AI.
Nevertheless, significant progress in the field continued (see below).
NOAH was applied at SRI International to interactively diagnose and repair electromechanical systems.
Barbara Grosz (SRI) established limits to traditional AI approaches to discourse modeling.
Jonathan Swift published Gulliver's Travels, which includes this description of the Engine, a machine on the island of Laputa: "a Project for improving speculative Knowledge by practical and mechanical Operations " by using this "Contrivance", "the most ignorant Person at a reasonable Charge, and with a little bodily Labour, may write Books in Philosophy, Poetry, Politicks, Law, Mathematicks, and Theology, with the least Assistance from Genius or study."George Boole set out to "investigate the fundamental laws of those operations of the mind by which reasoning is performed, to give expression to them in the symbolic language of a calculus", inventing Boolean algebra.