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The real exchange rate (RER) is the purchasing power of a currency relative to another at current exchange rates and prices.

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The firm is likely to be paid or have profits in a different currency and will want to exchange it for its home currency.In finance, an exchange rate (also known as a foreign-exchange rate, forex rate, ER, FX rate or Agio) between two currencies is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.It is also regarded as the value of one country’s currency in relation to another currency.[1] For example, an interbank exchange rate of 119 Japanese yen (JPY, ? 119 will be exchanged for each US$1 or that US$1 will be exchanged for each ? In this case it is said that the price of a dollar in relation to yen is ?They also incorporate genetic algorithm as an optimizing technique for adapting parameters of ANN which is then compared with standard backpropagation and backpropagation combined with K-means clustering algorithm.Finally, the authors find out that their suggested hybrid neural network is able to produce more accurate forecasts than the standard models and can be helpful in eliminating the risk of making the bad decision in decision-making process. Profits or losses accrue as the exchange rate of that currency fluctuates on the open market.In order to determine which is the fixed currency when neither currency is on the above list (i.e.

both are "other"), market convention is to use the fixed currency which gives an exchange rate greater than 1.000.

Authors test the suggested model on high-frequency time series data of USD/CAD and examine the ability to forecast exchange rate values for the horizon of one day.

To determine the forecasting efficiency, they perform a comparative statistical out-of-sample analysis of the tested model with autoregressive models and the standard neural network.

This report provides exchange rate information under Section 613 of Public Law 87-195 dated September 4, 1961 ( (b)) which gives the Secretary of the Treasury sole authority to establish the exchange rates for all foreign currencies or credits reported by all agencies of the government. The rates provided in this report are not meant to be used by the general public for conducting foreign currency conversion transactions.

The primary purpose is to ensure that foreign currency reports prepared by agencies are consistent with regularly published Treasury foreign currency reports regarding amounts stated in foreign currency units and U. This paper deals with application of quantitative soft computing prediction models into financial area as reliable and accurate prediction models can be very helpful in management decision-making process.

Even if a company expects to be paid in its own currency, it must assess the risk that the buyer may not be able to pay the full amount due to currency fluctuations.