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The start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. Emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated (animal husbandry and selective breeding).In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC.

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Settlements became more permanent with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms.The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals.The beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant (Jericho, modern-day West Bank) about 10,200–8800 BC.However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick.The settlement had a surrounding stone wall and perhaps a stone tower (as in Jericho).Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs.

Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank (notably Ain Mallaha, Nahal Oren, and Kfar Ha Horesh), Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, and Byblos, Lebanon.

The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, and therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings.

This evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming.

Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC.

Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep and goats.

As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming.